1 edition of Using crop residue to help control wind and water erosion found in the catalog.
Using crop residue to help control wind and water erosion
by U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in Columbia, Mo
Written in English
|Contributions||United States. Soil Conservation Service|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination|| p. :|
Mulch tillage maintains crop residues on the entire soil surface year-round. It is one of the simplest systems to use in reducing wind erosion and at the same time, contributes to the control of water erosion. Excessive tillage that buries crop residue is a major cause of . Residue from small grains provides good organic matter for soil building, and in the case of winter grains, the plants help to prevent erosion over winter after soybeans loosen up the soil. The length of the growing season will determine how you fit in cover crops after full-season soybeans in the rotation.
Water infiltration and plant available water are two important soil hydraulic properties to manage in the central Great Plains region where rainfall is often supplemented using irrigation to meet plant production goals. Both water infiltration and plant available water are affected by plant residue management, cover crop use, and tillage. Crop residue removal and soil erosion by wind. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. AA. Blanco-Canqui H., J. Tatarko, A.L. Stalker, T.M. Shaver, and S.J. van Donk. Impacts of corn residue grazing and baling on wind erosion potential in a semiarid environment. Soil Science Society of America Journal. –
No-till occasionally uses cover crops to help control weeds and increase organic residue in the soil (or nutrients by using legumes). Cover crops then need to be killed so that the newly planted crops can get enough light, water, nutrients, etc.   This can be done by . This section provides tools which can help farmers control soil erosion and protect water resources. When soil moves off individual fields or the farm, it takes valuable nutrients, pesticides and organic matter. Farmers cannot afford the economic loss, nor the adverse environmental impacts of allowing soil to wash or blow away.
Farm & ranch business management
Opportunities to fully integrate environmental research and development into developing energy technologies
Worship in ancient Israel
Health services for the school-age child, 1989.
Shakespearean enigma and an Elizabethan mania
Morphology and taxonomy of fungi.
Capacity constraints and the production of nonrenewable resources
Politics of change
Rome, containing three hundred and forty-five engravings on wood designed by the most celebrated artists
La Coes Pleadings Under the Florida Rules of Civil Procedure with Forms
Investigation of mixing a supersonic stream with the flow downstream of a wedge
Additional Physical Format: Online version: Using crop residue to help control wind and water erosion. Columbia, Mo.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation. Crop residue shields the soil surface from raindrop impact, reducing soil particle detachment.
Residue also creates "small dams" which slows the rate of runoff, allowing more time for water to infiltrate the soil. Slowing the runoff reduces the potential for soil erosion as the water flows over the by: 3.
Residue management through the use of conservation tillage systems is the most cost-effective method for controlling wind and water erosion. Using crop residues to protect the soil surface from rainfall can reduce water erosion by 90 percent.
Adopting these tillage systems also reduces fuel, labor and time requirements and conserves soil Author: Elbert C. Dickey, P. Harlan, Don Vokal. Thus, the task ahead for the management of croplands for improvements in the overall well-being of people involves the application of known effective crop residue management systems to maintain crop production and to reduce wind and water erosion.
Armbrust, ). Standing residues also help reduce profiles above and within sparse canopies and to con-water erosion by reducing the kinetic impact of rain- duct field measurements of wind profile and geometries drops (Van Doren and Allmaras, ).
Crop residues of standing residues for wheat, corn, millet, and sun-alter the biological. Using previous crop residues to protect the soil surface is the single most effective practice for controlling erosion from wind.
Crop residues vary in their effectiveness. Fine-strawed, upright stubble in rows perpendicular to the wind are more effective than. Table Risk of Erosion by Water on Cultivated Land. Data are percent of cultivated land. Source: Data from Acton and Gregorich ().
Fortunately, there is an increasing use of soil-conservation practices (such as those listed below), and this is reducing the risks of erosion by wind or water: leaving crop residues and/or stubble in the field.
Nanak S. Pasricha, in Advances in Agronomy, 9 Conclusion. Adoption of conservation agricultural practices of RT/NT and crop residue management has been immensely reported to help in mitigating global warming effect of GHG by storing more C in soil.
This practice has several other benefits including reduced energy input, greater water storage in the soil profile, reduced runoff and soil.
Recent water quality concerns has brought the discussion on cover crops and soil erosion back to the forefront. Cover crops are a great tool that farmers can use to minimize soil movement off of field.
Active roots in the soil hold the soil from water erosion while above ground growth shields soil movement from wind erosion. Erosion control: Retained stubble and crop residue reduces soil erosion and enhances soil fertility; Moisture conservation: Stubble traps water, reduce runoff water, better infiltration lead- ing to improved soil moisture condition protection.
Higher nitrogen availability; Seedling protection: Stubbles protects young seedling from wind and heat. Estimating crop residue, using residue to help control wind and water erosion.
Lincoln, NE: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, (OCoLC) Cover crop added to current crop rotation to reduce soil erosion from wind to below the soil tolerance (T) level.
Cover crops grown during critical erosion period(s). Species are selected that will have physical characteristics to provide adequate erosion protection. Criteria. A surface cover of crop residue can effectively reduce both water and wind erosion. The optimal ground coverage for erosion control is linked to soil topography and slope, evenness of residue distribution, tillage, type of residue, and residue decomposition rate.
Residue cover and conservation tillage reduce water erosion primarily. Chapter 6: Wind Erosion Abatement on Cropland Introduction to Wind Erosion Abatement on Cropland The physical properties associated with wind erosion include: soil moisture, soil aggregate stability, soil crusting, surface rock fragments, vegetative cover, plant residue, soil organic matter, wind barriers, and surface roughness.
Properly managed crop residues, carefully timed soil tillage, and accurately placed crop strips and crop barriers can all effectively reduce wind erosion. Proper land use and adaptation of adequate moisture conservation practices are the main tools which help in wind erosion control.
residue crop. Residues do reduce evaporation losses from soils, thus con- serving soil water. On the minus side, residues intercept herbicides, and their use may require a modification of weed control practices.
Residues also break down with time, and little residue may remain on the soil surface during prolonged droughts. Crop Residues Using previous crop residues to protect the soil surface is the single most effective practice for controlling erosion from wind.
Crop residues vary in their effectiveness. Fine-strawed, upright stubble in rows perpendicular to the wind are more effective than large, randomly distributed stalks lying flat on the soil surface.
Water Erosion. Water erosion is very simplistically speaking caused by rainfall, river flow, waves (wave action, hydraulic action and abrasion), corrosion, glacier movement, thawing, etc., while wind erosion is caused by wind picking up loose particles (deflation) that batter the ground as they fly by (abrasion), causing additional particles to become loose and fly away.
Low residue levels make soil vulnerable to crusting and erosion by wind and water. Tillage stimulates weed growth and reduces levels of organic matter.
Working wet soil may cause compaction and the development of plow pans. During the growing season, high evaporation resulting from lack of residue can reduce crop yields. Crop residue cover and soil aggregation are key factors that influence wind erosion (Fryrear et al., ).
Thus, maintaining crop residue and nonerodible aggregates on the soil surface during the. Successful conservation tillage reduces soil and water losses by 1) leaving appreciable crop residue on the soil surface (leaving stubble standing is important in wind erosion control); 2) leaving.crop residues, strip cropping and tree wind barriers may be required on these soils to effectively control wind erosion.
FIGU RE 3 - Surface clods and crop residue protect soil. CROP RESIDUES (Fig. 4) protect the soil by reducing the force of the wind on the soil surface. The effectiveness of crop residue for soil protection.Cover crop residue helps meet the 30% cover requirement for conservation tillage, helps control wind erosion in low residue crops, and provides other water infiltration and storage benefits.
Drawbacks. Cover crop use in the region depends on precipitation or the availability and economy of irrigation to produce residue.